Well, a popular training method that I use is Positive Training. The basic theory of it is that you "lure" the dog into the behavior you want (i.e. want him to go into a down? hold treat between his paws - most dogs will lay down to get it) Then, once he has performed the behavior, you "mark" (with a clicker and a treat, or a happy "Yes!" and a treat). After enough repetitions, the behavior becomes a habit...(you cue "down" . dog lays down. )...then you can start "fading out" the treat, which is, reinforcing the behavior randomly instead of every time. This method covered about 90% of what I wanted to train my dog to do, but it didn't work well for pulling.
A good book to learn about positive training is "Purely Positive" by Sheila Booth.
And I also enjoyed "The Other End of the Leash" by Patricia McConnell.
But the best way of all to learn, was going to group obedience class!
For example, applying to Jumping...you want NOT jumping to be rewarding. So, when dog jumps = no reward (you ignore, turn away, or even leave again). When dog is calm with all four paws on the floor, you mark "Good girl!!!" and give a treat. Pretty soon your dog will skip the Jump to move straight to "Good Girl" + Treat...& gradually (hopefully) your dog will unlearn the habit of jumping. You can see how this works with dog psychology in a different way than pushing them away with your knee - it's kind of like they are teaching themselves how to earn rewards, and it seems to be an effective way for dogs to learn.
Anyway the basic idea of "marking" the behavior you want, with some kind of reward - I have seen it REALLY work with my dog. ( He even learned some bad habits - I accidentally "marked" his behavior of getting up and coming over when I'm eating a snack, by giving him a piece just once in a while. Now he will come over and lurk next to me almost all the time, in hope of getting a piece of my snack. )
Then once dog is trained around house/yard, it's time to practice out in the real world. Gradually making it more difficult - i.e. Sit in a quiet empty street? if that is OK, then Sit in a street with people walking by at a distance? If that was good, then Sit in the pet store checkout line? Dog trainers call it "working below threshold".
Anyway there is so much on the internet about positive training...so I will shut up now 😄